Understanding Capabilities in Linux

For some time now the Linux kernel has been supporting a capabilities(7) based permission control model. In theory this allows assigning fine-grained permissions to processes so that processes that previously required UID 0/root permissions don’t need these any more. In practice though, uptake of this feature is relatively low, and actually trying to use it is hampered by confusing vocabulary and non-intuitive semantics.

So what’s the story?

All special access permission exemptions that were previously exclusively attached to UID 0 are now associated with a capability. Examples for these are: CAP_FOWNER (bypass file permission checks), CAP_KILL (bypass permission checks for sending signals), CAP_NET_RAW (use raw sockets), CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE (bind a socket to Internet domain privileged ports).

Capabilities can be bestowed on execution (similar to how SUID operates) or be inherited from a parent process. So in theory it should be possible to, for example, start an Apache web server on port 80 as a normal user with no root access at all, if you can provide it with the CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE capability. Another example: Wireshark only needs the CAP_NET_RAW and CAP_NET_ADMIN capabilities. It is highly undesirable to run the main UI and protocol parsers as root, and slightly less desirable to run dumpcap, which is the helper tool that Wireshark actually uses to sniff traffic, as root. Instead, the preferred installation method on Debian systems is to set the dumpcap binary up so that it automatically gains the required privileges on execution, and then limit execution of the binary to a certain group of users.

Gaining and giving capabilities

This is the most confusing part, because a) it doesn’t behave intuitively in the “just like suid-root” mental model, and b) uses the same words for completely different functions.

Conceptually capabilities are maintained in sets, which are represented as bit masks. For all running processes capability information is maintained per thread; for binaries in the file system it’s stored in extended attributes. Thread capability sets are copied on fork() and specially transformed on execve(), as discussed below.

Several different capability sets and related variables exist. In the documentation these are treated as somewhat symmetrical for files and threads, but in reality they are not, so I’ll describe them one by one:

Thread permitted set
This is a superset of capabilities that the thread may add to either the thread permitted or thread inheritable sets. The thread can use the capset() system call to manage capabilities: It may drop any capability from any set, but only add capabilities to its thread effective and inherited sets that are in its thread permitted set. Consequently it cannot add any capability to its thread permitted set, unless it has the CAP_SETPCAP capability in its thread effective set.
Thread effective set
This is the actual set of capabilities that the kernel uses for permission checks.
Thread inheritable set
This is a set that plays a role in bequeathing capabilities to other binaries. It would more properly be called ‘bequeathable’: a capability not in this set cannot be inherited by a different binary through the inheritance process. However, being in this set does also not automatically make a binary inherit the capability. Also note that ‘inheriting’ a capability does not necessarily automatically give any thread effective capabilities: ‘inherited’ capabilities only directly influence the new thread permitted set.
File permitted set
This is a set of capabilities that are added to the thread permitted set on binary execution (limited by cap_bset).
File inheritable set
This set plays a role in inheriting capabilities from another binary: the intersection (logical AND) of the thread inheritable and file inheritable sets are added to the thread permitted set after the execve() is successful.
File effective flag
This is actually just a flag: When the flag is set, then the thread effective set after execve() is set to the thread permitted set, otherwise it’s empty.
cap_bset
This is a bounding capability set which can mask out (by ANDing) file permitted capabilities, and some other stuff. I’ll not discuss it further and just assume that it contains everything.

Based on these definitions the documentation gives a concise algorithm for the transformation that is applied on execve() (new and old relate to the thread capability sets before and after the execve(), file refers to the binary file being executed):

  • New thread permitted = (old thread inheritable AND file inheritable) OR (file permitted AND cap_bset)
  • New thread effective = new thread permitted, if file effective flag set, 0 otherwise
  • New thread inheritable = old thread inheritable

This simple definition has some surprising (to me) consequences:

  1. The ‘file inheritable set’ is not related to the ‘thread inheritable set’. Having a capability in the file inheritable set of a binary will not put that capability into the resulting processes thread inheritable set. In other words: A thread that wants to bequeath a capability to a different binary needs to explicitly add the capability to its thread inheritable set through setcap().
  2. Conversely the ‘thread inheritable set’ is not solely responsible for bequeathing a capability to a different binary. The binary also needs to be allowed to receive the capability by setting it in the file inheritable set.
  3. Bequeathing a capability to a different binary by default only gives it the theoretical ability to use the capability. To become effective, the target process must add the capability to its effective set using setcap(). Or the file effective flag must be set.
  4. A nice side effect of the simple copy operation used for the thread inheritable set: A capability can be passed in the thread inheritable set through multiple intermediate fork() and execve() calls to a target process at the end of a very long chain without becoming effective in the middle.
  5. The relevant file capability sets are those of the binary being executed. When trying to give permitted capabilities to an interpreted script, the capabilities must be in the file inheritable set of the interpreter binary. Additionally: If the script can’t/won’t call capset(), the file effective flag must be set on the interpreter binary.

Summary

I’ve tried to summarize all the possible paths that a capability can take within a Linux thread using capset() or execve(). (Note: fork() isn’t shown here, since all capability information is simply duplicated when forking.)

Linux Capabilities: Possible capability transmission paths

Setting Arbitrary Baud Rates On Linux

Historically, baud rates on UNIX –later: POSIX– systems have been manipulated using the tcgetattr()/tcsetattr() functions with a struct termios and a very limited set of possible rates identified by constants such as B0, B50, B75, B110, …, through B9600. These have later been extended for select values such as B38400 and B115200. Hardware has since evolved to be able to use almost any value as a baud rate, even much higher ones. The interface however, has never been properly repaired.

Linux used a technique called “baud rate aliasing” to circumvent that problem in the past: A special mode can be set so that a request for B38400 would not actually set 38.4kBaud but instead a separately defined other baud rate with names like spd_hi (“high”?) for 57.6kBaud, spd_shi (“super high”?) for 230kBaud or spd_warp for 460kBaud. These names may give you an idea how old and limited this interface is.

For this reason there is a new ioctl interface to set an arbitrary baud rate by actually using an integer to store the requested baud rate: TCGETS2/TCSETS2 using struct termios2.

Both documentation and example code for this method are sparse. A bug report to implement this in libc6 is still open. Thankfully that bug report includes example C code to use the interface directly. The constant to tell the structure that an OTHER Baud rate has been set has unwisely been called BOTHER, which, being a proper English word, makes it completely impossible to find any information on the internet about. So, to be more explicit (and hopefully be found by any future search for this topic): This is an example on how to set a custom baud rate with the BOTHER flag on Linux in Perl.

Transforming the C example into Perl code using the Perl ioctl function should be easy, right? Muahahaha. Every example on how to use Perl ioctl on the Internet (that I’ve reviewed) is wrong and/or broken. Even better: the perl distribution itself is broken in this instance. Quoth /usr/lib/perl/5.18.2/asm-generic/ioctls.ph on Ubuntu 14.04:

eval 'sub TCGETS2 () { &_IOR(ord(\'T\'), 0x2a, 1;}' unless defined(&TCGETS2);

(hint: count the number of opening and closing parentheses.)

Even if that Perl code was syntactically correct, it’s wrong in principle: The third argument to the _IOR macro should be the struct termios2 structure size. On x86_64 it’s 44 bytes, not 1.

So, I’ve written code with two purposes:

  1. Correctly use Perl’s ioctl to
  2. set a custom serial baud rate under Linux.

The definitions of both TCGETS2 and struct termios2 may be architecture dependent, so there’s a helper program in C to output the parameters for the current architecture.

All the code (set baud rate with TCSETS2 BOTHER in C, set baud rate with TCSETS2 BOTHER in Perl, C helper to output constants for the current architecture, Makefile) I released into the public domain at github.com/henryk/perl-baudrate/.